Gregor Mendel started the study of genetics when he performed an experiment involving genetics in As discussed in Chapter 3, the properties of a proteinwhich are responsible for its biological function, are determined by its three-dimensional structure, and its structure is determined in turn by the linear sequence of the amino acids of which it is composed.
Here, the single-stranded DNA curls around in a long circle stabilized by telomere-binding proteins.
Genetic test results can have implications for a person's health, and the tests are often provided along with genetic counseling to help individuals understand the results and consequences of the test. InOswald T. Summary Genetic information is carried in the linear sequence of nucleotides in DNA.
Artificial bases Main article: Nucleic acid analogue Several artificial nucleobases have been synthesized, and successfully incorporated in the eight-base DNA analogue named Hachimoji DNA.
The ribosome scans along an mRNA, reading the code while it makes protein. The exact correspondence between the four-letter nucleotide alphabet of DNA and the twenty-letter amino acid alphabet of proteins—the genetic code —is not obvious from the DNA structure, and it took over a decade after the discovery of the double helix before it was worked out.
As the nucleotide A successfully pairs only with T, and G with C, each strand of DNA can specify the sequence of nucleotides in its complementary strand. A pentose sugar is a five-sided sugar.