Upon activation, these cells produce a variety of chemokines, cytokines and ROS.
However, the findings have been inconsistent and in most studies, there has been joint exposure to other risk factors. This categorization was questioned due to 1 the absence of dose—response findings, 2 the presence of confounding variables that complicated interpretation of the data and 3 potential selection bias for compensated silicosis.
Since the IARC publication inthere have been in excess of 50 papers published of studies exploring the association between CS exposure and silicosis and lung cancer, plus a number of reviews [ 34—37 ].
Moreover, this result also was replicated in an implantable lung cancer model. Results showed that such cells could reduce pulmonary inflammation and improve lung function.
Cherrie et al. Acute form develops within a period between a few months and 2 years, after intense exposure to silica and mostly in people engaging in denim sandblasting. If silicosis were the necessary step leading to lung cancer, enforcing that the current silica standards would protect workers against lung cancer risk as well.
Crystalline silica-induced leukotriene B4-dependent inflammation promotes lung tumour growth. Experimentally, studies have shown that in rats, inhaled CS causes fibrosis and lung cancer [ 63 ] and data indicate that the lung cancer risk occurs at relatively low doses [ 64 ].
Goldsmith and Guidotti [ 48 ] pointed out that the combined exposure to smoking and CS was associated with more lung cancer cases than expected from the sum of the estimates of their separate effects, which Greenland and Rothman [ 49 ] interpreted as a biological interaction or synergy.
This work will review our current knowledge of silica-associated lung cancers, highlighting how recent mechanistic insights support the use of cutting-edge approaches to diagnose and treat silica-related lung cancer.
In a study of 34 individuals with silicosis complicated by COPD, systemic treatment with prednisolone led to a significant improvement in pulmonary function as measured by increased diffusing capacity and oxygenation when compared with patients receiving supportive therapy alone.
Recent reports have stated that there are 1.