Several new painting techniques appeared. Their bronze vases and vessels - the key achievement of Shang Dynasty art - were made by the method of direct casting as well as by the cire-perdue lost-wax process.
Daoism Taoism Among the 'Hundred Schools of Philosophy which addressed themselves to the Chinese ruling classes during the period of the Warring States, the most remarkable perhaps was that of the Daoists Taoists.
Porcelain like the creamy white Ting ware or the pale blue Ch'ing-pai ware with their incised decoration come the closest to perfection.
The shape of these characters are often described as "pictographic", in that they resemble stylized drawings of objects they represent.
Chinese remained the medium of formal writing until it was displaced by vernacular writing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
These civil servants, scholars and poets painted as a form of personal expression, intellectual as well as spiritual, a way for the individual to come to terms with himself through communion with nature, in the rendering of the essence of a landscape, a bamboo sprig or a dragonfly.
Plant symbols include: the orchid, another symbol of purity and loyalty; and the pine tree, which symbolizes endurance. A political and military regime, Sui dynasty art was almost entirely Buddha-inspired and was followed by the Tang dynasty whose greatest leader, Emperor Taizong T'ai-tsungextended the empire deep into central Asia and Korea and allowed all religions and races to flourish in an atmosphere of tolerance and intellectual curiosity.